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Sanskrit alphabet – Sanskrit script – Devanagiri


from Wikipedia

Devan?gar? (????????) is a system used to write severalIndian languages, including SanskritHindiMarathi,KashmiriSindhi, and Nepali. Devanagari is a form ofalphabet called an abugida, as each consonant has an inherent vowel (a), that can be changed with the different vowel signs. It is a close descendant of the Br?hm? script that has been traced back to 500 BC. The Brahmi script, in turn, is derived from the Eastern Aramaic alphabet. Many other Indian languages are written using other scripts in the Brahmic family.

The name Devanagari is of dubious etymology. It comes from the Sanskrit words Deva (god), and Nagari (city); together they mean, literally, “City of the Gods”. This refers to a legend that the script was used in such a city. The philosophy behind it is that when one meditates on the specific sounds of the Devanagari alphabet, the written forms appear spontaneously in the mind. The compound really functions as a bahuvrihi. “Devanagari” is the most common transliteration of the name of script. Others are “Devnagri”, “Devanagri”, and “Deonagri” (rare).

Devanagari is written from left to right. Words are written together without spaces, so that the top bar is unbroken, although there are some exceptions to this rule. The break of the top line primarily marks breath groups. Devanagari has no case distinction, i.e. no majuscule andminuscule letters.

The spelling of languages written in Devanagari is partlyphonetic in the sense that a word written in it can only be pronounced in one way, but not all possible pronunciations can be written perfectly. Devanagari has 34 consonants (vyanjan), and 12 vowels (svar). A syllable(akshar) is formed by the combination of zero or one consonants and one vowel.

The transliterations in the following tables follow the popular National Library at Calcutta romanization. TheITRANS notation [1] is a lossless transliteration scheme of Devanagari into English. The letters used to represent Devanagari alphabets in this notation have approximately the same pronunciation in English. It is widely used onUsenet. In ITRANS, the word Devanagari is written as “devanaagarii”.

Note: Unicode support and fonts containing Devanagari characters are required to display the Devanagari on this page, which may be found here.

All the vowels in Devanagari are attached to the top or bottom of the consonant or to an AA vowel sign attached to the right of the consonant, with the exception of the I vowel sign, which is attached on the left. In the Devanagari vowel table below, the “Letter” column contains the symbol used when a vowel occurs without a consonant, the “Vowel sign” column contains the symbol used when a vowel is attached to a consonant, and the “Vowel with [p]” column show an example of the vowel symbol, attached to the “p” consonant. The “Unicode name” column contains the name given in the Unicode specification for the vowel, and the “IPA” column contains the International Phonetic Alphabet character(s) corresponding to the Devanagari vowel.

———-

Sanskrit vowels

Letter Vowel sign Vowel with [p] Sound Unicode name
? ? (pa) A
? ? ?? (p?) AA
? ? ?? (pi) I
? ? ?? (p?) II
? ? ?? (pu) U
? ? ?? (p?) UU
? ? ?? (p?) VOCALIC R
? ? ?? VOCALIC RR
? ? ?? VOCALIC L
? ? ?? VOCALIC LL
? ? ?? CANDRA E
? ? ?? SHORT E
? ? ?? (pe) E
? ? ?? (pai) AI
? ? ?? CANDRA O
? ? ?? SHORT O
? ? ?? (po) O
? ? ?? (pau) AU

———-

Sanskrit symbols

Symbol Symbol with [p] Unicode name Function
? ?? VIRAMA Called halant; suppresses the inherent vowel.
? ?? CANDRABINDU Nasalizes vowel
? ?? ANUSVARA Nasalizes vowel
? ?? VISARGA Adds voiceless breath after vowel
? ?? NUKTA
? ?? AVAGRAHA

———-

Sanskrit consonants

Letter Unicode name Transliteration IPA
? KA k k
? KHA kh kh
? GA g g
? GHA gh g?
? NGA ? ?
? CA c t?
? CHA ch t?h
? JA j d?
? JHA jh d??
? NYA ñ ?
? TTA ? ?
? TTHA ?h ?h
? DDA ? ? / ?
? DDHA ?h ?? / ??
? NNA ? ?
? TA t t?
? THA th t?h
? DA d d?
? DHA dh d??
? NA n n?
? PA p p
? PHA ph ph
? BA b b
? BHA bh b?
? MA m m
? YA y j
? RA r ?
? LA l l
? LLA ? ?
? VA v v
? SHA ? ?
? SSA ? ?
? SA s s
? HA h h

Among these, ? is not used in Hindi. The entire set is used in Marathi.

———-

Devanagiri numerals

Devanagari digits are written as follows:

? 0 ? 1 ? 2 ? 3 ? 4
? 5 ? 6 ? 7 ? 8 ? 9
Thursday, April 15th, 2010

Is Sanskrit a better language than English for spiritual development? – ARTICLE


These are questions that comes back often:

  • Why not simply use English words for meditation?
  • What is so special about Sanskrit?
  • Does Sanskrit really work better than English or is it just a made up idea?

Here are some answers:

  • Yes, you can use English words for meditation, prayer or any other spiritual practice!

Will English words work as good as Sanskrit?

In my experience, I did get better results with Sanskrit, but that’s just me.

The results I talk about are not related with a rational choice. I had many mystical experiences which were linked with focusing on Sanskrit words over a few days periods or longer.

  • Sanskrit is a special language because it contains thousands of divine names and concepts expressing inner realities.

In English, you have words like: God, Divine, Absolute, Lord and that’s about it.

Of course you can dive deeper and reconnect with the divine essence of English. You can rediscover words and expressions which carry a specific vibration. It does work.

You do have as well other spiritually rich languages like Hebrew, Arabic, Ancient Greek, Latin, etc.

  • No, it is not a made up idea. It is an experience!

If you go to certain parts of the Himalayas, everyone you meet is in some kind of spiritual journey. As soon as you start talking with even a total stranger, it really feels like something magical starts happening.

This part of of the world is like a magnetic center for those seeking spiritual connection.

If you walk through the Rockies or the Swiss Alps, the mystical dimension can of course still be there. However, you might find it more challenging to connect with it.

If you meet someone on the path, it might be a hunter or mountain biker. People walk these mountains for many reason and spiritual quest is only one of them.

Invisible temples are everywhere but in the Himalayas, people have been dedicating their lives to spiritual quest for thousands of years.

Most Himalayan mountains are named after divinities:Nanda Devi (Nanda = Bliss , Devi = Spirit), NarayanaParbat (Narayana = name of Vishnu), Nilakantha(Nilakantha = The blue throated one = One of the names of Shiva) all refer to divine attributes of a God or Goddess.

Lets’ take another example, if you want to connect with a spiritual dimension in you, what do you feel works best? Taking a trip to visit the stock exchange in Wall Street or visiting a remote Buddhist monastery in Thailand?

This means that certain places are more likely to give you some form of mystical realization than others, right?

A language works in the same way.

It is a whole energy reality.

When you connect with it, you enter a universe of experiences and connect as well with the subtle emotions and impressions of those who used that language before you.

In other terms, a language is a gateway. It is like a key.

Now, if you use the word “Love” in English and meditate on it for a few days or months, I am sure that the vibration of Love will start increasing in you.

It works with any language.

Every language is divine or cosmic in essence.

If Sanskrit works for you, great! Keep using it and explore its many dimensions!

If Sanskrit does not resonate with you, no problem, try English or any other language you feel attuned to.

The technique you use is only a gateway. It is a key.

Yes! The key that matches your mind set could be a simple word like “Love” or “Light”.

Explore! Experiment! You are free!

Many pathways lead you to the same place :)

To your life power!

vitalcoach

Thursday, April 15th, 2010

Calligraphies and translations


If you know Sanskrit and feel that the translation or spelling of some Sanskrit words is not perfect, feel free to email me with your suggestions.

Translations and transliterations of Sanskrit words are always subject to some interpretation and variation.

Feel free as well to adapt the mantras and interpret them in your own way.

A language is not fixed. It is evolving. So are mantras and the calligraphies you will find in these pages.

The goal is to free your mind, not to limit it within a restricted set of rules and forms.

A calligraphy is the reflection of an energy connection.

What matters is the perfection of that connection, not the perfection of the object itself.

This is the spirit in which I created these pages.

It is okay to speak these words with an accent and even to have a spelling mistake in a word.

What matters the most is your intention.

My guarantee is that the energy reality you connect to gets your message and does respond to it.

Take the example of the word Shiva.

You can write it Siva or Shiva.

Now, I know that the reality you connect to does get your message whether you use one or the other form.

You can waste your time trying to figure out what the right spelling is or you can simply use the word in whatever form you want and enjoy the experience.

Free your mind!

Thursday, April 15th, 2010

Sanskrit calligraphy


Sanskrit calligraphy is a direct way of invoking energies and realities. Words are powerful. Uttering them is one way of invoking these realities.

Mantras (sanskrit formulas) have been used as invocations for thousands of years. These mantras are sung in the form of bhajans and khirtans (two forms of singing). They are used as well for meditation.

Writing calligraphies works in the same way. For instance when you write the word:

Shantih

Peace

this is the quality you invoke in and around you.

Other forms of calligraphies like Arabic or Chinese use the same principle. It is an invocation of a certain form, concept, idea or energy.

If you write the calligraphy “Shantih” regularly, you will simply attract peace into your life.

The “technical” details of how to write it, what pen or ink to use, etc. are only secondary to the act of simply doing it.

It is like drinking water. You can drink water in a refined crystal glass or you can drink directly from a mountain stream, water will still be water. Once you drink, your thirst will be gone.

Where can you start? First, get familiar with the sanskrit alphabet. After that, start combining the letters in simple words like “Shantih”. You can play with the words, discover the fluidity in your movement. It is not complicate, in fact very simple. All you have to do is try.

Within a month you can easily master a few words you can use regularly.

Thursday, April 15th, 2010

Sanskrit language


From Wikipedia

Sanskrit (???????; in devanagari) is one of the oldest known members of the Indo-European language family, and an official language of India. Having first developed around 1500 BC, It has sometimes been described as the Asian equivalent to Latin for its role in the religious and historical literature of India. Sanskrit is also the ancestor of the Prakrit languages of India, such as Pali and Ardhamagadhi. Scholars have preserved more Sanskrit documents than documents in Latin and Greek combined. The Vedic scriptures were written in a form of Sanskrit.

History

The word Sanskrit means completed, refined, perfected. Sam (Together) + krtam (created). Virtually every Sanskrit student in India learns the traditional story that Sanskrit was created and then refined over many generations (traditionally more than a thousand years) until it was considered complete and perfect. The original crude language from which Sanskrit was derived could be Prakrit which means Prototype. Pra (prime, first, pre-) + krt (created).

The language underwent several stages of consolidation and modification. In its older Vedic form, it is a close descendant of Proto-Indo-European, the root of all later Indo-European languages. Vedic Sanskrit is also practically identical to Avestan, the language of Zoroastrianism. After the consolidation of its grammar and lexicon it turned into a classical language of strict esthetic rules and gave rise to considerable literature of drama, medicine, politics, astronomy, mathematics, alchemy etc.

Its common origin with modern European and the more familiar classical languages of Greek and Latin can be seen, for instance, in the Sanskrit words for mother, matr, and father, pitr. European scholarship in Sanskrit, initiated by Heinrich Roth and Johann Ernest Hanxleden, led to the discovery of this language family by Sir William Jones, and thus played an important role in the development of linguistics. Indeed, linguistics (along with phonology, etc.) was first developed by Indian grammarians who were attempting to catalog and codify Sanskrit’s rules. Modern linguistics, which arose much later in the rest of the world, owes a great deal to the grammarians, including key terms for compound analysis.

Sanskrit is the oldest member of Indo-Aryan sub-branch of Indo-Iranian. Vedic Sanskrit and Avestan are the oldest members of the Indo-Iranian sub-branch of the Indo-European family. Nuristani languages, spoken in roughly what has become Afghanistan, are grouped with Vedic and Avestan.

The oldest form of Sanskrit is Vedic, in which the Vedas, the earliest Sanskrit texts, were composed. The earliest of the Vedas, the Rîgveda, was composed in the middle of the second millennium BC. The Vedic form survived until the middle of the first millennium BC. Around this time, as Sanskrit made the transition from a first language to a second language of religion and learning, the Classical period began. The intense study of the structure of Sanskrit at this time led to the beginnings of linguistics. The oldest surviving Sanskrit grammar is P??ini‘s c. 500 BC A???dhy?y? (“8 Chapter Grammar”). A form of Sanskrit called Epic Sanskrit is seen in the Mahabharata and other epics. Vernacular Sanskrit may have developed into the Prakrits (in which, among other things, early Buddhist texts are written) and the modern Indic languages. There has been much reciprocal influence between Sanskrit and the Dravidian languages.

See also: Upanishad

Script

Sanskrit today is generally written in the syllabic Devanagari script composed of 51 letters or aksharas. Several Latin-alphabet transliterations of varying utility are also available. Previously Sanskrit was written in the Brahmi script which was used especially by Ashoka for his pillar inscriptions. Siddham was also an important script for Buddhist texts, and was exported along with Buddhism as far as Japan (via China, and Korea) where the writing of Siddham mantras and seed syllables is still practiced. Writing was introduced relatively late to India, and did not immediately become important since scholars were required to recite texts from memory. However some early Buddhist texts make reference to writing as an occupation, and as a children’s game. Rhys Davids suggests that writing may have been introduced from the middle east by traders, but Sanskrit, which was used exclusively in sacred contexts, remained a purely oral language until well into the common era.


Influences

Sanskrit had some influence on the Chinese culture because Buddhism was initially transmitted to China in Sanskrit. Many Chinese Buddhist scriptures were written with Chinese transliterations of Sanskrit words. Some Chinese proverbs use Buddhist terms that originate from Sanskrit.

Sanskrit words are found in many present-day languages. For instance the Thai language contains many loan words from Sanskrit, and ranged as far as the Philippines viz. Tagalog ‘guru’, or ‘teacher’, with the Hindu seafarers who traded there well before Magellan.

Phonology and writing system

Sanskrit has 48 phonemes (Vedic Sanskrit has 49). The Sanskrit syllabary serves as a model for all Indian language writing systems except Urdu. For the ingenious phonetic classification scheme of these writing systems see Indian language.

The sounds are described here in their traditional order: vowels, stops and nasals (starting in the back if the mouth and moving forward), and finally the liquids and sibilants.

(Note: The long vowels are held about twice as long as their short counterparts. Also, there exists a third, extra-long length for most vowels, which is used in various cases, but particularly when recording a shout, or a greeting.)


Vowels (with approximate English equivalents)

a – gut
aa – father
i – pin
ii – tweak
u – push
uu – moo
r^i = between r + i and r + u
long r^i = between r + ii or r + uu
l^i = l + r^i

(Sanskrit recognizes vocalic r (errr) and l (ulll), unlike, say, English)

Diphthongs (Combinations of Simple Vowels)

e – hay
ai – aisle
o – snow
au – pow

Vowels can be nasalized.


Consonants

Sanskrit has a voiceless, voiceless aspirate, voiced, voiced aspirate, and nasal stop at each of the following places of articulation:

It also has four semivowels: y, r, l, v. All of these but r have nasalized forms. Sanskrit also has palatal, retroflex, and alveolar sibilants. Rounding out the consonants are the voiced and voiceless h (the voiceless h, called the visarga, tends to repeat the preceding vowel after itself) and the anusvaara, which often appears as nasalization of the preceding vowel or as a nasal homorganic to the following consonant.

Vedas Sanskrit had a pitch (music) or tonal accent, but it was lost by the Classical period. Vedic Sanskrit also had labial and velar fricatives and a retroflex L.

Sanskrit has an elaborate set of phonological rules called sandhi and samaas which are expressed in its writing (except in so-called pada texts). Sandhi reflects the sort of blurring that occurs, particularly between word-boundaries, in spoken language generally, but is codified in Sanskrit and written down. A simple example of English sandhi is “an apple” versus “a clock”.

Sandhi makes Sanskrit very hard to read without a great deal of practice. It also creates ambiguities which clever poets have exploited to perform such feats as writing poems which can be interpreted in multiple, unrelated ways depending on how the reader chooses to break apart the sandhi.


Morphology and Syntax

Sanskrit is a highly inflected language with three grammatical genders (masculine, feminine, neuter) and three numbers (singular, plural, dual). It has eight cases: nominative, vocative, accusative, instrumental, dative, ablative, genitive, and locative. It has over ten noun declensions.

Sanskrit has ten classes of verbs divided into in two broad groups: athematic and thematic. The thematic verbs are so called because an a, called the theme vowel, is inserted between the stem and the ending. This serves to make the thematic verbs generally more well-behaved. Exponents utilized in verb conjugation include prefixes, suffixes, infixes, and reduplication. Also extremely common is vowel gradation; every root has (not necessarily all distinct) zero, guna, and vrdhii grades. If V is the vowel of the zero grade, the guna grade vowel is traditionally thought of a V + a, and the vrdhii grade vowel as V + aa.

One other notable feature of the nominal system is the very common use of nominal compounds, which may be huge (10+ words) like in some modern languages like German language. Nominal compounds occur with various meanings, some examples of which are:

1.Bahuvrihi

Bahuvrihi, or much-rice, denotes a rich person–one who has much rice. Bahuvrihi compounds refer to a thing which is not specified in any of the parts of which the compound is formed. A block-head, for example, is someone whose head is said to be as thick as a block.

2.Karmadhariya

A compound in which all of the words specify that to which the compound refers. A houseboat, for example, is both a house and a boat.

3.Tatpurusha

There are many tatpurushas (one for each of the nominal cases, and a few others besides); in a tatpurusha, one component is related to another. For example, a doghouse is a dative compound, a house for a dog. It would be called a “caturtitatpurusha” (caturti refers to the fourth case–that is, the dative). Incidentally, “tatpurusha” is a tatpurusha (“this man”–meaning someone’s agent), while “caturtitatpurusha” is a karmadhariya, being both dative, and a tatpurusha.

The verbs tenses (a very inexact application of the word, since more distinctions than simply tense are expressed) are organized into four ‘systems’ (plus gerunds and infinitives, along with such creatures as intensives/frequentives, desideratives, causatives, and benedictives derived from more basic forms). Each verb is also has a grammatical voice: either active, passive or middle. (Middle indicates actions done to something other than the speaker for the speaker’s own benefit. The semantic distinction between middle and passive is not maintained in later Sanskrit). The four systems are:

Word order is free with tendency toward SOV.

Here is a simple example to illustrate the different contexts in which the cases are used for the pronouns:

mayaa tatam idam sarvam jagad 
avyaktamuurtinaa |
matsthaani sarvabhuutaani na caaham 
teshv avasthitah ||
                                    -- Giitaa (9.4)

“mayaa” (by me) in the first line is in the instrumental case. Word for word this says “by me is pervaded this all universe” but a naturalized translation would be “I pervade all this universe…”.

“mat-sthaani” in the second line is a compound of “mat” (me) and “stha” (standing, staying at) and means “they are in me”.

“-aham” (I) in the second line is nominative. na caaham = “…and not I….”, meaning “but I am not…”.

“teshv-” (in/at/by them) at the end of the second line is in locative plural. Translated: “…in them”.

External Links

Thursday, April 15th, 2010

Sat Chit Ananda


  • Sat – Truth

Connect with your center, source or essence.Sat expresses the fact that your being is essence and that you are connected with your source at all times.The truth is that nothing is separated. You are united with this sea of life force at all times.You are one with the cosmos, the planet, all creative hierarchies and humankind.

  • Chit – Consciousness

Be aware and awake. Understand the dynamics of the universe. It is from this state of awakening and awareness that you experience your life.

  • Anand – Bliss

Experience the bliss of the instant. Enjoy the celebration of life and manifestation. The process of manifestation itself is absolute bliss. You feel life flowing through your whole being.

How to use this mantra

Uttering internally these words invokes this mind set and energy reality in your being.

You can as well write down the calligraphy and post it somewhere you can see it.

You can write down the calligraphy as many times as you want.

Every time you write it down or meditate on it, you plant seeds of clear awakening in your mind.

It is like recalling a perfect memory or idea into your being.

A mantra is as well a gate way which connects you with that specific energy reality.

It connects you with an inner scholl of wisdom associated with the origin of that specific mantra or idea.

It is a bit like a website address.

It is the key.

It is a gateway which directs you to a new brightened state of awareness.

Thursday, April 15th, 2010

Aham Asmi


AHAM ASMI

I am that!

Thursday, April 15th, 2010

Jiva Mukta


JIVA MUKTA

Spiritual liberation

Jiva means “life,” and Mukta means “liberation.”
Jiva-Mukta therefore, means to be spiritually liberated while still living in a mortal body

Thursday, April 15th, 2010

Shantih


SHANTIH

Peace

Thursday, April 15th, 2010

Gayatri


Thursday, April 15th, 2010

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