1. Prehistoric Era (before 500 BCE): Ancient tribes in Indonesia practiced animism and dynamism, worshipping the spirits of ancestors and the forces of nature.
  2. Early Hindu Era (~200 BCE): Hindu influence started arriving from India, spreading through the archipelago over several centuries.
  3. Buddhist Era (1st – 5th century CE): Along with Hinduism, Buddhism also began to spread in the region.
  4. Srivijaya Empire (7th – 14th century CE): The Mahayana Buddhist Srivijaya Empire controlled the maritime region of Indonesia.
  5. Medang Kingdom (732 CE – 1006 CE): A Hindu-Buddhist kingdom in Central Java, noted for building the Borobudur, a Buddhist stupa.
  6. Arrival of Hinduism in Bali (around 8th century CE): Hindu influence from the Java kingdom started to significantly spread in Bali.
  7. Singhasari Kingdom (1222–1292 CE): Hindu kingdom in East Java that emerged after the collapse of the Kediri kingdom.
  8. Majapahit Empire (1293–1527 CE): Last major Hindu empire in the region, encompassing present-day Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Brunei, southern Thailand, and the Philippines.
  9. Arrival of Islam (~13th century CE): Islamic teachings arrived in Indonesia through traders from Gujarat, India, and Persia.
  10. Spread of Islam (13th – 16th century CE): Over these centuries, the Muslim religion began to dominate, replacing Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms.
  11. Sultanate of Malacca (15th century CE): Established by a Muslim prince from Sumatra, played a key role in the spread of Islam.
  12. Mataram Sultanate (16th century CE): Islamic kingdom based in central Java, playing a significant role in Islamizing Java.
  13. Arrival of Europeans (16th century CE): Portuguese and later the Dutch arrived, bringing Christianity along with their colonial pursuits.
  14. Dutch East India Company (VOC) Era (1602-1800): Protestant Christianity was spread by the Dutch colonizers.
  15. Dutch Colonial Era (1800-1942): Continued Christian proselytization, mostly to ethnic minorities and outlying islands.
  16. Japanese Occupation (1942-1945): Islam was somewhat favored over Christianity, due to Japan’s political strategy against the western colonizers.
  17. Independence of Indonesia (1945): The constitution guarantees freedom of religion, with six religions recognized: Islam, Protestantism, Catholicism, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism.
  18. Post-independence era (1945-present): Most of Indonesia is Muslim, with Christianity significant in eastern parts, Bali remains predominantly Hindu, and Buddhism is practiced mainly by the Chinese community.
  19. Bali Hinduism (1945-present): Balinese Hinduism has flourished, differentiating itself with a unique blend of Indian Hinduism, Buddhism, and animistic traditions.
  20. Modern Era (21st century): Religious harmony and tolerance are promoted, despite occasional religious conflicts. Religious tourism, especially in Bali and Borobudur, has become significant.

About the author

Shiva Rajaya

Tantrika / Life coach / Activator of new evolutionary codes for the planet and humankind